Monday, June 30, 2014



The Byzantine Court has been designed and arranged by Mr. M. Digby Wyatt, with Mr. C. Fowler, Jun., as chief superintendent, and Mr. Thomas Hill draughtsman.

The contruction generally was done by Messrs. Fox, Henderson and Co., the ornamental portions by Mr. [Samuel] Cundy.

The pavement of the Cloister was presented to the Crystal Palace Company by Messrs. Maw of Benthall, Shropshire. The pavement of the Court, in metallic lava, was executed by Orsi and Armani, the designs being principally founded on examples in Messrs. Waring and Macquoids “Architectural Art in Italy and Spain.”

The full-size drawings were made out for it, and it’s execution was superintended by Mr. Thomas Hill.

The restorations of the Kilpeck and Shobden doors have been executed by Mr. W. Jennings, of Hereford, the painted decorations being by Mr. Moone, of London, from designs of Mr. Wyatt’s, based on illustrations given in the valuable works of Mr. Lewis on those churches.

The escutcheons of the Royal Screen, under Mr. Wyatt’s charge, have also been painted by Mr. Moone.

The polychromy has been cleverly and conscientiously executed by Mr. Beensen, of London, from designs by Mr. Wyatt, founded for the most part on studies made by him in Italy and Sicily; the most important of which have been engraved in his work on the “Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages;” [1848] the working out and superintendence of the above decorations have been confided to Mr. R. P. Pullan, by whom some of the principal subjects have also been painted.

The large fountain was executed by Mr. Redfern, of Ashford, Derbyshire, in marble from the quarries of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.

The Knights Templar have been reproduced under the superintendence of Mr. [Edward] Richardson, the sculptor, who so ably restored the original monuments.

The painted ceiling from Assisi, in the gallery, is by Mr. R. J. Clayton, of London.

The cloister of St. John Lateran was cast, and its mosaics executed, under the superintendence of Dr. Emil Braun, of Rome. The Irish casts, for the possession of which the Company is indebted to the authorities of the Great Irish Exhibition, have been carefully re-erected by Mr. Jones, in the employ of the well-known sculptor of the same name.


The Mediaeval Court has been designed and arranged by Mr. M. Digby Wyatt, with Mr. Charles Fowler, junr., as principal superintendent, and Mr. Robert Dudley as superintendent of the  restorations and monuments, and principal draughtsman. Many excellent drawings were also made for this Court by Mr. R. J. Withers and Mr. Irvine.

The casts from Nuremburg are by Fleischman and Son.

Those from Mayence by the Baron Launitz, of Frankfort.

The national Art-collection has been formed by Mr. Wyatt. The entire construction (with the exception of the rough carcasss, which was put up by Messrs. Fox, Henderson, & Co.), has been entrusted to Mr. Cundy, of Pimlico; some of the principal restorations – such as the Ardene tomb, some of the Royal effigies, &c. – to Mr. Edward Richardson, of London. The Cantilupe, Percy tombs, &c., and the Walsingham font, to Mr. Phyffers, of London. The cast of the Beauchamp monument has been made by Messrs. Cooke & Mears, of Warwick. The Tewkesbury bosses, &c., by Mr. Collins, of Tewkesbury. The casts from Hereford are by Mr. W. Jennings; from Worcester, by Mr. J. Stevens; from Lichfield by Mr. G. Caldwell, under the kind superintendence of Mr. T. Johnson, architects of Lichfield; from Lincoln by Mr. Clarke; from Wells by Mr. Durham; from Hawton and Southwell by Mr. Fabrini; from Walsingham, York, Beverley, &c., by Mr. Keyworth, of Hull; from Salisbury, Bath, and Bristol, by Mr. G. Howitt; from Canterbury, by Mr. Bruccianni; the remainder being done principally by Mr. Cundy, by whose able body of artist-workmen the whole of the casts (with the exception of those above-specified, and of the Bohun tomb, which was restored by Mr. Jennings), have been fitted, placed, and brought to their present condition.

The painting has been executed with great energy, and in an extraordinary short space of time by Mr. Bulmer, of London and Shrewsbury, from designs by Mr. Wyatt, worked out and constantly superintended in execution by Mr. R. P. Pullan, who has also painted some of the decorations. The angels of the façade have been painted by Mr. Bulmer himself.

The stained glass has been presented by Messrs. Hardmann &. Co., of Birmingham.

The Rochester and Lichfield doors and several of the monuments have been painted and illuminated by Mr. Coulton, of London.

The encaustic pavement of the Cloister has been presented to the Crystal Palace Company by Messrs. Maw &. Co. of Benthall, Shropshire.

The greater number of the French casts have been executed by M. Malzieux, of Paris.

Mr. Boule, as foreman of the works, and Mr. Constance as timekeeper, have done good service.


The Renaissance Courts have been designed and arranged by Mr. M. Digby Wyatt; principal superintendent, Mr. Charles Fowler, Junr.; principal draughtsman, Mr. Robert Dudley.

The entire Bourgtheroulde Arcade has been executed by M.Desachy of Paris, by whom and by Signor [Edoardo] Pieroti of Milan, the principal casts have been supplied.

The Fountains in Terra Cotta are supplied by Mr. Blashfield of London.

The Pavement of the Loggia is by the London Marble Working Company.

The Painting has been designed by Mr. Wyatt; the Upper Frieze being executed by Mr. Beensen; and the Arcade by Mr. Pantaenius of London. The Bronzing has been done by M. Loget of Paris, in the employ of M. Desachy. The Boys in the Ceiling of the Loggia are by Mr. Gow of London; the Portraits in the Lunettes by Mr. F. Smallfield of London, by whom is also the beautiful Painted Ceiling of the Gallery, from an elaborate drawing at Perugia by Mr. Wyatt.

The construction of the Elizabethan Court was intrusted to Mr. Cundy, by whom also are the Monuments; and the whole of its painted decorations have been executed with great care and ability by Mr. [Issac ?] Coulton of London.

Superintendent for Mr. Wyatt in this Court – Mr. Thomas Hayes. 


The Italian Court has been designed and arranged by Mr. M.Digby Wyatt; the drawings having been worked out by Mr. Thomas Hayes. The construction has been done by Messrs. Fox, Henderson and Co., whose master plasterer, Mr. Hawkins, has carried out his work, which was of a difficult kind, with great care. The monuments were cast principally by Dr. Emil Braun and M. Desachy.

The pavement of the loggia has been made by the London Marble Working Company.

The fountain in the centre of the Court was executed by Mr. [Samuel] Cundy out of alabaster presented to the Crystal Palace company by T. Hills, Esq., of Burton-upon-Trent. This beautiful material is the produce of his quarries at Fauld, in Staffordshire.

The painting of the marble work is by Messrs. C. and J. Moxon, of London and Edinburgh. The bronze painting is by M. Loget, of Paris, and Mr. Coulton, of London. The arabesques have been principally painted by Messrs. Gow, Earle, Leslie, Wassaner, Yahn, Lutchens, Munsch, &c., under the superintendence of Mr. Parris, W.A.

The painted flowers and fruit in the body fo the Court are by Mr. Beensen; and the modelling if the festoons in the principal frieze, by Antonio Trentanove.

The painted ceiling from Venice, in the gallery, is by Mr. Alfred Stevens.

The whole superintendence from Mr. Wyatt has been entrusted to Mr. Thomas Hayes, by whose unremitting attention and solicitude every detail has been most carefully elaborated.

The decorative painting of the Italian vestibule is by Mr. Pantaenius. The very beautiful ceiling from the Vatican has been admirably executed by Mr. Alfred Stevens.

Friday, June 27, 2014

Italian Court


Passing between the Slave and Christ of Michelangelo into the gallery, the central statue is the celebrated St. Jerome, by Torrigiano – executed in terra cotta; it is now preserved in the Museum at Seville, and was originally in the Buena Vista convent, at the same city.

Over the St. Jerome is suspended the Ganymede by Cellini.

The ceiling overhead is from the Biblioteca Antica, at Venice, [Biblioteca Marciana] and was designed by Serlio, the celebrated Italian architect and author, about the year 1540. The magnificent building in which it exists was built by Jacapo Sansovino, in the year 1536 and subsequently, to receive the libraries bequeathed to the Venetian Republic, by Petrarch and Cardinal Bessarione. Serlio was but a short time at Venice, and no works of his, with the exception of this ceiling, are now known in that city.

He was born . . .

In the fourth book of his architecture . . . 

The four bronze pedestals at this part of the gallery are portions of those of the Piazza of San Marco, Venice, where they supported the standards of the Republic. They were designed and executed by Alessandro Leopardi, the Venetian sculptor, in the year 1505. The subject on the plinths is a triumphal procession.

Returning up the gallery towards the Renaissance Court is a very beautiful crucifix , from the suppressed monastery of the Certosa near Pavia; the figure of Christ is well executed, and at the four arms of the cross are the four Evangelists, with their emblems, very cleverly managed; the lower portion is founded on the form of an antique candelabrum, the details of which are also antique, with the exception of a few figures of monks, &c., in the oval wreaths.

Beyond this, on the wall, is a very fine unfinished bas-relief of the Virgin and Child, by Michelangelo, from Genoa. It is one of the sculptor’s earlier works, and is characterised by great tenderness of feeling and boldness of execution.

[Can't anything that matches that description - by location]

Beyond the St. Jerome, proceeding towards the great transept will be placed the sarcophagus of the monument to Daniel Birago, nominal archbishop of Mytilene, by Andrea Fusina [Andrea da Fusina], in the church of Santa Maria della Passione at Milan.

Mausolée de Daniel Birago dans l'Eglise de la Passion à Milan
The boldly cut ornament of this tomb is particularly good: two well designed angels support the following inscription, “Danielli Birago Archi Miyii pre hospitalis . . . . . .

On the wall opposite to this is a candelabrum from the Certosa, Pavia; in the lowest part are four ovals, containing bas-reliefs of the Evangelists, and above them, the Fathers of the church, and a Madonna and Child; other medallions filled in with religious subjects occur above these again, the rest of the design is founded on the antique, and although the name of the artist is not authenticated, yet from the similarity existing between this candelabrum and the crucifix and the two candelabra on the facade, known to be by Annibale Fontana, we are inclined to ascribe the two former also to him.

On either side of the candelabrum Is a Holy Family by Michaelangelo; the one to the left is from the original at the Royal Acdemy, London;

that to the right from the Uffizi Gallery, Florence;

they are both unfinished, and are classed among his earlier works; in which are to be found a tenderness and grace not altogether free from the influence of Donatello, Da. Vinci, and others . . . .

We reccomend them to the attentive notice . . .

In closing our remarks on the very valuable series of  . . .

The force and energy of his soul are seen on the  . . .

Having completed his inspection of the works of formative art in the gallery at the back of the Italian Court and Vestibule, we would invite the visitors attention to the very beautiful vaulted ceiling nearest the Central Transept.

This ceiling is a perfect reproduction of that one in which Raphael exhibitied, perhaps more than in any other work executed by him, his complete mastery over the principles of the arrangement of painting, as applied to decorative purposes.

The Camera della Singiatura, from which it has been taken, was the first of a series of rooms in the Vatican which Raphael commenced painting in fresco, by order of Julius II., and on which series he was employed until his death in the year 1520, even when they were still not quite completed.

The present ceiling was completed in the year 1511, and consists of four compartments, each containg a large round, with the allegorical figures above mentioned, the interspaces being occupied by four oblong pictures, each subject in which relates to the figures in the round.

[This image seems to show that the Raphael ceiling was between the loggia and the vestibule.]

It would be difficult to imagine a more faithful reproduction of this beautiful ceiling than has been made in the present case by Mr. Alfred Stevens, whose long residence in Italy, and profound study of Raphael, had eminently qualified him for the task. In its execution he was much aided by the loan, from the Council of the Royal Academy, London, of the elaborate copies of the various subjects of the ceiling, presented to the Royal Academy by Lady Bassett.


The vestibule of the Italian Court is formed on the model of the Casa Taverna at Milan, painted in fresco by Bernadion Luini, an excellent follower of Leonardo da Vinci, whose works are numerous in Milan.

We would draw particular attention to the doors which lead out of the Vestibule to the Grand transept, as beautiful examples of Italian architecture at the close of the 15th century. They are from the palace of the Cancellaria, at Rome; completed in 1494 by Cardinal Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV., from the designs of Bramante, and are excellent proofs of the great attention and study bestowed by that celebrated architect on the most minute details.

On the wall of the Vestibule facing the transept, is the very beautiful altar of the Madonna della Scarpa, [ Cappella Zen] or Virgin of the Shoe (so called from the projecting and covered foot), from the cathedral of St. Mark, Venice, one of the finest exisiting examples of bronze work for which Venice justly obtained such reputation in the 16th century.

It was commenced by Antonio Lombardo and Alessandro Lepardi, in the year 1505; but, owing to disputes between them, was completed by Pietro Lombardo, A.D. 1515.

The Virgin is represented seated on a throne, the pedestal of which is ornamented with delicate “cinque-cento” work, with the winged lion of St. Mark at each extreme end. Within an oak wreath, beneath this, is the inscription "Pitri Joannis Campanati, M. DXV." The ornament of the lower pedestal shows a graceful arrangement of antique and natural subjects.

On either side of the Virgin are statues of St. John and St. Paul. The former is very much in Donatello's style; but eveidently studied from nature, as evinced by the head, the hands, the knees, the projecting heels, the breadth and bigness of the feet, the projecting bones of the big toe, and the natural length of the first tow, which, in the antique is very much longer than any other. St. Paul also bears the impress of Donatello's influence. His head is characterised by much mild dignity.

The ornament is in an excellent Renaissance style, of which the pilasters are especially good examples.

Cappella Zen at the south east corner of the Basilica di San Marco

La Madonna con la scarpa dorata nella Capella Zen Basilica di San Marco a Venezia.

[This altar is the dark rectangle, behind Canova's "Mars and Venus" in the image below.]

The frieze and the base of the altar contain subjects from the life of Christ, in relief, by John of Bologna [ Giambologna], from his celebrated bronze door at Pisa Cathedral [Duomo]. The first in the frieze, commencing at the left hand, represents Christ shown bound to the Jews; the second, Christ taken to be crucified; and in the third, he bears his cross. The first to the left, at the base, is Christ brought bound before the High Preist; in the second, he is crowned with thorns, and in the third, he is being scourged. They are all characterised by the sculptor's peculiar ability in grouping, and great energy of action.

The two circular bas-reliefs in the dados are very beautiful examples of the Renaissance school, from the Berlin Museum. The subject of each, the Virgin and Child.

On the right of the altar, against the wall, is the monument of Lancino Curzio, the poet, from the Brera Gallery Milan – a chef-d’oeuvre of the Lombard sculptor, Augustino Busti or Bambaja.
The effigy of Curzio is shown, placed beneath a curiously cut piece of scroll work. Beneath him is the inscription. . .

The three Graces, holding inverted torches, at the top, are executed with all that delicacy for which the artist was so famed. They appear to be founded on the three antique graces, now preserved in Siena Cathedral: at the sides are the angels of Judgement and Victory, and above all, is a very beautiful winged figure of Fame, standing on the clouds. The whole style of the monument indicates a transition from the early to the second Renaissance period.

Below is a Sarcophagus, purporting to be the tomb of St. Pelagius Martyr, a fine example of the late Renaissance.

On the left of the Madonna della Scarpa is the Sacrarium [sacristy?] of the Cappella of the Maddalena, at the Certosa, Pavia, a richly ornamented example of the Lombard Renaissance style, towards the close of the 15th century.

[Just visible behind the Hildesheim Column.]

[Seems to have vanished in this image - where the picture frames are.]

A great number of excellent sculptors were employed in this magnificent monastery, but unfortunately there are no means of ascertaining - with one or two exceptions - the work of each respectvely.

Below [next to ? as it appears to be a column] this are several pieces of ornament, by Andrea Sansovino, formed into a composition.

Italian Court after the fire of 1936.



The principal specimen of Michel Angelesque design placed in this Court (at the end and placed farthest from the Nave), is the celebrated statue of Moses originally intended to form part of the magnificent tomb of Julius II., the plan of which was so imposing that it is said to have induced the Pope to undertake the rebuilding of St. Peter's.

Many sonnets have been addressed to this statue, the most noted . . . 

Beyond the equestrian statue of Gatta Melata, in square piers, both on the left and right of Moses, are excellent examples of the state of French ornamental art in the last half of the 17th century, from a votive offering erected by Louis XIV. (1643-1713), in fulfilment of a vow of Louis XIII., now in the cathedral of Notre Dame, at Paris.